When submitting foreign language documents to any official body, such as the authorities, universities, the courts or a notary public, it is often necessary to present both the original document and its translation, which must be certified as a true and accurate rendering of the original.

This requires a sworn, or certified, translator; that is, a translator who is authorized to translate official documents by, for example, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Each page of a sworn translation must bear the signature, stamp and certification of the sworn translator in order to attest to the reliability and accuracy of the translation.